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What are the 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah?

What are the 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah?

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the founder of Pakistan and the leader of the All-India Muslim League. He presented his famous 14 points in 1929 as a response to the Nehru Report, which proposed a constitutional framework for a united India. The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam were aimed at safeguarding the rights and interests of the Muslims in a federal system.


The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam are as follows:

  • The constitution of India should be federal, with maximum autonomy for the provinces.

  • All the provinces should have equal representation in the central legislature, regardless of population.

  • All the legislative and executive bodies should have adequate representation of the minorities, without affecting the majority rule.

  • Any constitutional amendment or law affecting the religious, cultural, or economic rights of the minorities should require their consent.

  • The Muslims should have separate electorates for their representation in all the elected bodies.

  • The Muslims should have reserved seats in the central and provincial cabinets, proportional to their population.

  • The Muslims should have a fair share in all the public services, such as civil, military, and judicial.

  • The freedom of religion, speech, press, and association should be guaranteed to all citizens.

  • No bill or resolution affecting the personal law of any community should be passed without its consent.

  • The safeguards for the protection of the Muslim culture and education should be provided in the constitution.

  • The provinces should have full control over their natural resources and taxation.

  • The central government should not interfere in the provincial matters, except for defense and foreign affairs.

  • The establishment of a separate Muslim state or states should be possible if the Muslims desire so.

  • The constitution should be framed by a constituent assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise.

The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam were rejected by the Congress and the British government, but they became the basis for the demand of Pakistan by the Muslims in 1940. The 14 points reflect the vision and wisdom of Quaid-e-Azam for a peaceful and prosperous coexistence of different communities in India.

The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam were a significant contribution to the political history of India and Pakistan. They represented the aspirations and demands of the Muslims, who felt marginalized and discriminated by the Hindu-dominated Congress and the British colonial rule. They also challenged the Nehru Report, which proposed a unitary and centralized constitution for India, without giving due consideration to the Muslim interests.

The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam were not accepted by the Congress and the British government, who regarded them as too extreme and divisive. However, they gained popularity and support among the Muslims, who saw them as a blueprint for a separate Muslim homeland. The 14 points also became the basis for the Lahore Resolution of 1940, which formally demanded the creation of Pakistan.

The 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam were a testament to his political vision and leadership. He foresaw the problems and conflicts that would arise from a united India, where the Muslims would be reduced to a permanent minority. He advocated for a federal and democratic system, where the Muslims would have equal rights and representation. He also defended the cultural and religious diversity of India, and sought to protect the minorities from any form of oppression or domination. 0efd9a6b88


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